Born On The: 13th April 1570.
Died On The: 31st January 1606.
Birthplace: Stonegate, York.
|Occupation(s): Soldier and Plotter.|
Zodiac: Born under the Star Sign AriesWhat Star Sign are You?
Achievement(s): The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 and "the only man ever to enter Parliament with honest intentions".
Guy Fawkes was born in Stonegate, York; he was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York, and his wife, Edith; Fawkes's parents were regular communicants of the Church of England, as were his paternal grandparents; his grandmother, born Ellen Harrington, was the daughter of a prominent merchant, who served as Lord Mayor of York in 1536; however, Guy's mother's family were recusant Catholics and his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit priest.
Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton; the date of Fawkes' birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfrey on 16 April and as the customary gap between birth and baptism was three days, he was probably born on about the 13th April 1570.
In 1579, when Guy was eight years old, his father died; his mother remarried several years later, to the Catholic Dionis Baynbrigge of Scotton, Harrogate; Fawkes may have become a Catholic through the Baynbrigge family's recusant tendencies, or the Catholic branches of the Pulleyn and Percy families of Scotton, or from his time at St. Peter's School in York.
A governor of the school had spent about 20 years in prison for recusancy and its headmaster, John Pulleyn, came from a family of noted Yorkshire recusants, the Pulleyns of Blubberhouses; in her 1915 work The Pulleynes of Yorkshire, author Catharine Pullein suggested that Fawkes's Catholic education came from his Harrington relatives, who were known for harbouring priests, one of whom later accompanied Fawkes to Flanders in 1592 to 1593.
Fawkes's fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher, who were both later involved with Fawkes in the Gunpowder plot, and Oswald Tesimond, Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, who became priests, the latter was executed in 1601; after leaving school Fawkes entered the service of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, but the Viscount took a dislike to Fawkes and after a short time dismissed him; he was subsequently employed by Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu, who succeeded his grandfather at the age of 18.
In 1592 he sold the land he had inherited from his father and became a soldier, by 1593 after serving briefly as a footman for the second Viscount Montague he enlisted in the army of Archduke Albert of Austria in the Netherlands; he fought against the Protestant United Provinces in the 80 years war with the armies of Catholic Spain; he served for many years as a soldier, gaining great expertise with explosives, which is the most likely reason that Catesby & Winter later recruited him.
He joined Sir William Stanley, an English Catholic and veteran commander in his mid-fifties who had raised an army in Ireland to fight in Leicester's expedition to the Netherlands; Stanley had been held in high regard by Elizabeth I, but following his surrender of Deventer to the Spanish in 1587, he and most of his troops, had switched sides to serve Spain; Fawkes became an alférez or junior officer, fought well at the siege of Calais in 1596, and by 1603 had been recommended for a captaincy; that year, he travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England.
He used the occasion to adopt the Italian version of his name, Guido, and in his memorandum described James I as "a heretic", who intended "to have all of the Papist sect driven out of England."; he denounced Scotland, and the King's favourites among the Scottish nobles, writing "it will not be possible to reconcile these two nations, as they are for very long"; although he was received politely, the court of Philip III was unwilling to offer him any support.
In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, Princess Elizabeth, who was third in the line of succession.
Fawkes was described by the Jesuit priest and former school friend Oswald Tesimond as "pleasant of approach and cheerful of manner, opposed to quarrels and strife and loyal to his friends"; Tesimond also claimed Fawkes was "a man highly skilled in matters of war" and that it was this mixture of piety and professionalism which endeared him to his fellow conspirators, and the author Antonia Fraser describes Fawkes as "a tall, powerfully built man, with thick reddish-brown hair, a flowing moustache in the tradition of the time, and a bushy reddish-brown beard", and that he was "a man of action, capable of intelligent argument as well as physical endurance, somewhat to the surprise of his enemies.".
The First Meeting:
The first meeting of the five central conspirators took place on Sunday the 20th May 1604, at an inn called the Duck and Drake, in the fashionable Strand district of London; Catesby had already proposed at an earlier meeting with Thomas Wintour and John Wright to kill the King and his government by blowing up "the Parliament House with gunpowder".
Wintour, who at first objected to the plan, was convinced by Catesby to travel to the continent to seek help; Wintour met with the Constable of Castile, the exiled Welsh spy Hugh Owen, and Sir William Stanley, who said that Catesby would receive no support from Spain; Owen did, however, introduce Wintour to Fawkes, who had by then been away from England for many years, and thus was largely unknown in the country; Wintour and Fawkes were contemporaries, each was militant and had first hand experience of the unwillingness of the Spaniards to help; Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott", and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England; Wintour's news did not surprise Catesby; despite positive noises from the Spanish authorities, he feared that "the deeds would nott answere".
One of the conspirators, Thomas Percy was promoted in June 1604, gaining access to a house in London which belonged to John Whynniard, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe; Fawkes was installed as a caretaker and began using the pseudonym John Johnson, servant to Percy.
The contemporaneous account of the prosecution, taken from Thomas Wintour's confession, claimed that the conspirators attempted to dig a tunnel from beneath Whynniard's house to Parliament, although this story may have been a government fabrication; no evidence for the existence of a tunnel was presented by the prosecution and no trace of one has ever been found; Fawkes himself did not admit the existence of such a scheme until his fifth interrogation, but even then he could not locate the tunnel.
If the story is true, however, by December 1604 the conspirators were busy tunnelling from their rented house to the House of Lords; they ceased their efforts when, during tunnelling, they heard a noise from above; Fawkes was sent out to investigate and returned with the news that the tenant's widow was clearing out a nearby undercroft, directly beneath the House of Lords.
Where the Gunpowder was Stored:
The plotters purchased the lease to the room, which also belonged to John Whynniard; unused and filthy, it was considered an ideal hiding place for the gunpowder the plotters planned to store; according to Fawkes, 20 barrels of gunpowder were brought in at first, followed by 16 more on the 20th July; on the 28th July however, the ever present threat of the plague delayed the opening of Parliament until Tuesday, the 5th November.
In May 1605, in an attempt to gain foreign support, Fawkes travelled overseas and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters' plan; at some point during this trip his name made its way into the files of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, who employed a network of spies across Europe; one of these spies, Captain William Turner, may have been the one who sent the following reports; although the information he provided to Salisbury usually amounted to no more than a vague pattern of invasion reports and included nothing which regarded the Gunpowder Plot, on the 21st April he told how Fawkes was to be brought by Tesimond to England; Fawkes was a well known Flemish mercenary, and would be introduced to "Mr Catesby" and "honourable friends of the nobility and others who would have arms and horses in readiness"; the reports did not, however, mention Fawkes's pseudonym in England, John Johnson, and did not reach Cecil until late in November, well after the plot had been discovered.
It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed; more gunpowder was brought into the room, along with firewood to conceal it; Fawkes's final role in the plot was settled during a series of meetings in October; he was to light the fuse and then escape across the Thames; simultaneously, a revolt in the Midlands would help to ensure the capture of Princess Elizabeth; acts of regicide were frowned upon, and Fawkes would therefore head to the continent, where he would explain to the Catholic powers his holy duty to kill the King and his retinue.
Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot:
A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would be present at Parliament during the opening, so on the evening of the 26th October, Lord Monteagle received an anonymous letter warning him to stay away, and to "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament"; despite quickly becoming aware of the letter, informed by one of Monteagle's servants, the conspirators resolved to continue with their plans, as it appeared that it "was clearly thought to be a hoax".
Fawkes checked the undercroft on the 30th October, and reported that nothing had been disturbed; Monteagle's suspicions had been aroused however and the letter was shown to King James, who ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of the 5th November; Fawkes had taken up his station late on the previous night, armed with a slow match and a watch given to him by Percy "becaus he should knowe howe the time went away"; he was found leaving the cellar, shortly after midnight and was subsequently arrested; the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal.
Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was first interrogated by members of the King's Privy Chamber, where he remained defiant; when asked by one of the lords what he was doing in possession of so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered that his intention was "to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains."; he identified himself as a 36-year-old Catholic from Netherdale in Yorkshire and gave his father's name as Thomas and his mother's as Edith Jackson.
Wounds on his body noted by his questioners he explained away as the effects of pleurisy; Fawkes admitted his intention to blow up the House of Lords and expressed regret at his failure to do so; his steadfast manner earned him the admiration of King James, who described Fawkes as possessing "a Roman resolution"; James's admiration did not, however, prevent him from ordering on the 6th November that "John Johnson" be tortured, to reveal the names of his co-conspirators.
He directed that the torture be light at first, referring to the use of manacles, but more severe if necessary, authorising the use of the rack: "the gentler Tortures are to be first used unto him et sic per gradus ad ima tenditur" (and so by degrees proceeding to the worst); Fawkes was transferred to the Tower of London; the King composed a list of questions to be put to "Johnson", such as "as to what he is, For I can never yet hear of any man that knows him", "When and where he learned to speak French?", and "If he was a Papist, who brought him up in it?"; the room in which Fawkes was interrogated subsequently became known as the Guy Fawkes Room.
Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes's confession; he searched his prisoner, and found a letter, addressed to Guy Fawkes; to Waad's surprise, Johnson remained silent, revealing nothing about the plot or its authors; on the night of the 6th November he spoke with Waad, who reported to Salisbury "He, Johnson, told us that since he undertook this action he did every day pray to God he might perform that which might be for the advancement of the Catholic Faith and saving his own soul"; according to Waad, Fawkes managed to rest through the night, despite his being warned that he would be interrogated until "I had gotton the inwards secret of his thoughts and all his complices"; his composure was broken at some point during the following day.
The observer Sir Edward Hoby remarked "Since Johnson's being in the Tower, he beginneth to speak English"; Fawkes revealed his true identity on the 7th November, and told his interrogators that there were five people involved in the plot to kill the King; he began to reveal their names on the 8th November and told how they intended to place Princess Elizabeth on the throne; his third confession, on the 9th November, implicated Francis Tresham; following the Ridolfi plot of 1571 prisoners were made to dictate their confessions, before copying and signing them, if they still could; although it is uncertain if he was subjected to the horrors of the rack, Fawkes's signature of 'Guido', made soon after his torture, is a barely evident scrawl, which bears testament to the suffering he endured at the hands of his interrogators.
The Trial and execution:
The trial of eight of the plotters began on Monday the 27th January 1606; Fawkes shared the barge from the Tower to Westminster Hall with seven of his co-conspirators; they were kept in the Star Chamber before being taken to Westminster Hall, where they were displayed on a purpose built scaffold; the King and his close family, watching in secret, were among the spectators as the Lords Commissioners read out the list of charges; Fawkes was identified as Guido Fawkes, "otherwise called Guido Johnson"; he pleaded not guilty, despite his apparent acceptance of guilt from the moment he was captured; when he was allowed to speak, he explained his not guilty plea as an ignorance of certain aspects of the indictment.
The outcome was never in doubt; the jury found all of the defendants guilty and the Lord Chief Justice Sir John Popham proclaimed them guilty of high treason; the Attorney General Sir Edward Coke told the court that each of the condemned would be drawn backwards to his death, by a horse, his head near the ground; they were to be "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both"; their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes and their bowels and hearts removed; they would then be decapitated and the dismembered parts of their bodies displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air".
Fawkes's and Tresham's testimony regarding the Spanish treason was read aloud, as well as confessions related specifically to the Gunpowder Plot; the last piece of evidence offered was a conversation between Fawkes and Wintour, who had been kept in adjacent cells; the two men apparently thought they had been speaking in private, but their conversation was intercepted by a government spy.
On the 31st January 1606, Fawkes,Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood and Robert Keyes were dragged from the Tower on wattled hurdles to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had attempted to destroy; his fellow plotters were then hanged and quartered; Fawkes was the last to stand on the scaffold; he asked for forgiveness of the King and state, while keeping up his "crosses and idle ceremonies", and aided by the hangman began to climb the ladder to the noose and although he was weakened by torture, Fawkes managed to jump from the gallows, breaking his neck in the fall and thus avoiding the agony of the latter part of his execution; his lifeless body was nevertheless quartered, and as was the custom, his body parts was then distributed to "the four corners of the kingdom", to be displayed as a warning to other would be traitors.
The First Bonfire Night:
On the 5th November 1605 Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires, always provided that "this testemonye of joy be carefull done without any danger or disorder"; an Act of Parliament designated each 5th November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance", and remained in force until 1859; although he was only one of 13 conspirators, Fawkes is today the individual most associated with the failed Gunpowder Plot.
In Britain, the 5th November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night, Guy Fawkes Day, Plot Night and Bonfire Night; the latter can be traced directly back to the original celebration of the 5th November 1605; bonfires were accompanied by fireworks from the 1650s onwards and it became the custom to burn an effigy, usually the Pope, after 1673, when the heir presumptive, James, Duke of York made his conversion to Catholicism public; effigies of other notable figures who have become targets for the public's ire, such as Paul Kruger and Margaret Thatcher, have also found their way onto the bonfires, although most modern effigies are of Fawkes.
The guy is normally created by children, from old clothes, newspapers, and a mask; during the 19th century, 'guy' came to mean an oddly dressed person, but in American English it lost any pejorative connotation and was used to refer to any male person; William Harrison Ainsworth's 1841 historical romance Guy Fawkes; or, The Gunpowder Treason, portrays Fawkes in a generally sympathetic light and transformed him in the public perception into an "acceptable fictional character".
Fawkes subsequently appeared as essentially an action hero in children's books and penny dreadfuls such as 'The Boyhood Days of Guy Fawkes'; or, 'The Conspirators of Old London', published in about 1905; Fawkes is sometimes referred to as "the only man ever to enter Parliament with honest intentions".