Diabetic Medication:
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Type 1 Diabetics must take Insulin because their body no longer makes it; they may also have to take other types of diabetes Medication that works with Insulin.

Type 2 Diabetics usually suffer from a condition called Insulin Resistance and require Medication to combat this; many choices are available and your doctor might prescribe two or more forms of Medication; the The UK Diabetic Association recommends that most people start with Metformin.

Type 4 Diabetics, those with Gestational Diabetes, can usually control it with meal planning and physical activity, but some women need Insulin in order to reach their target blood glucose levels.

Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with Type 2 Diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target; several kinds of pills are available and each works in a different way; many people take two or three kinds of pills and some people take combination pills, which contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet and some people take both pills and Insulin.

Your doctor may ask you to try one kind of pill and if it doesn't help you to reach your blood glucose targets, your doctor may ask you to up the dosage; he may also add another kind of pill, or change one or more of your existing pills to other types of pill; in some cases your doctor may also suggest that you start taking Insulin, or another type of injected medication.

If your doctor suggests that you take insulin or another injected medication, it doesn't mean that your diabetes is getting worse; instead, it means that you need insulin or another type of medicine to reach your blood glucose targets; everyone is different.

The problem with not trying out new Tablets, Insulins and Treatments is that it is well known in medical circles that Tablets, Insulins and Treatments work differently on different patients, meaning that just because several patients react well to one type of prescription it doesn’t mean that all patients will.

A lack of choice could potentially cause unpleasant side effects and serious consequences like Hypoglycaemic attacks, rashes, itching, Lipoatrophy and Lipohypertrophy; meaning that doctors cannot always rely on being able to prescribe the same Medication to different patients.

If Type 2 Diabetics take exercise and make appropriate dietary changes, the requirement for type 2 diabetics to take additional medication may be prevented. or at least delayed. and the likelihood of them developing diabetic complications such as Heart Attacks, Gangrene, Kidney Failure, Blindness and Foot Problems, like Ulcers may also be prevented or delayed.

Types of Oral Diabetic Medication:

Oral diabetes medications are normally used in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; Medication within this category fall within one of several classes, including Biguanides, Meglitinides, Sulfonylureas, Thiazolidinediones, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors, Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibitors and Ergot Alkaloids.

Biguanide Medications:

Metformin is a drug that is prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by decreasing the amount of Glucose made by the liver, delaying the absorption of Glucose from the intestines, which decreasing the amount of Glucose absorbed into the body and makes the Insulin Receptors more sensitive; as a result, metformin can help the body respond better to its own insulin and decrease blood Glucose levels; as with any medication, there are Potential Side Effects, such as diarrhea, nausea and headaches; the medication is available in several forms, including a tablet form, two long acting forms and a liquid version.

Glucophage XR is approved for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by decreasing the amount of Glucose made by the liver and by decreasing insulin resistance; Potential Side Effects include diarrhea and nausea.

Glumetza is a medication that can be prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by decreasing the amount of Glucose made by the liver, as well as the amount of Glucose absorbed into the body, the drug can help the body respond to its own insulin better and reduce blood Glucose levels.

Riomet is commonly used to treat Type 2 Diabetes; this medication, which is the only liquid form of metformin available, is a popular choice for those who have trouble swallowing tablets; the drug works by decreasing the amount of Glucose made by the liver and decreasing the amount of Glucose absorbed into the body; as a result it can help the body respond better to its own insulin and decrease blood Glucose levels; as with any medication, there are Potential Side Effects, such as diarrhea, nausea and headaches.

Fortamet is often prescribed for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; this is a long acting form of metformin; the drug works by decreasing the amount of Glucose made by the liver and decreasing the amount of Glucose absorbed into the body; as a result it can help the body respond better to its own insulin and decrease blood Glucose levels; as with any medication, there are Potential Side Effects, such as diarrhea, nausea and headaches; fortamet is effective in decreasing the risk of long term complications that are associated with diabetes, such as Heart Disease.

Meglitinide Medications:

Repaglinide is used to help lower blood Glucose levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by causing the pancreas to make more insulin in order to lower blood Glucose levels after meals; Potential Side Effects include headaches, low blood Glucose levels and upper respiratory tract infections.

Nateglinide is often prescribed for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by causing the pancreas to make more insulin after meals; Potential Side Effects include low blood Glucose, dizziness and flu like symptoms; however, most people tolerate it quite well.

Sulfonylurea Medications:

Chlorpropamide is often prescribed for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; it is a long-acting sulfonylurea and it has more side effects than other sulfonylureas and its use is no longer recommended; the drug works by increasing the secretion of insulin, so it is only effective in patients who have some pancreatic beta cell function; Potential Side Effects include relatively long episodes of Hypoglycemia; this is one reason why shorter acting sulfonylureas areused instead.

Gliclazide is a drug used to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works mainly by stimulating the beta cells in the pancreas, causing more insulin to be produced; this helps to decrease the amount of Glucose in your blood; Potential Side Effects can include an allergic reaction; a high temperature; a skin rash; swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat and deifficulty brteathing or swallowing; this medicine interacts with alcohol; therefore, it is best to avoid drinking alcohol and medicines containing alcohol while you are taking this medicine.

Glimepiride is a drug used to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping the pancreas produce more insulin and allowing the cells of the body to respond better to insulin; as a result, blood Glucose levels decrease; Potential Side Effects of this drug include nausea, headaches and weakness.

Glipizide is used to lower blood Glucose in people with Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping the pancreas make more insulin; Potential Side Effects of glipizide include dizziness, diarrhea and nervousness.

Glyburide is often used to lower blood Glucose levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping the pancreas make more insulin; a micronized glyburide is also available, with small particles that are better absorbed into the body; possible side effects include stomach problems, low blood Glucose and allergic skin reactions.

Tolazamide is often used to lower blood Glucose levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by lowering blood Glucose by causing the pancreas to produce insulin and helping the body use insulin efficiently; this medication will only help lower blood Glucose in people whose bodies produce insulin naturally; possible side effects include nausea, upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, yellowing of the skin or eyes, light coloured stools, dark urine, stomach pain, unusual bruising or bleeding, diarrhea, fever or sore throat.

Tolbutamide is often used to lower blood Glucose levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by stimulating the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, causing the beta cells to produce more insulin, increases the uptake of Glucose from the blood into muscle and fat cells and decreases the production of Glucose by the liver; possible side effects include diarrhoea, constipation, nausea or vomiting, Increased appetite, Weight gain, Hypoglycaemia, Headache, Tinnitus, rash or itching and Cholestatic jaundice.

Thiazolidinedione Medications:

Pioglitazone is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; it is a form of thiazolidinedione; the drug works by lowering and controlling blood Glucose by improving insulin sensitivity; possible side effects include muscle pain, fluid retention and headache.

Rosiglitazone is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping to control your blood Glucose and by helping your body to respond better to its natural insulin; as a result, the drug helps to lower blood Glucose and to keep it under better control; possible side effects include upper respiratory infections, headaches and back pain.

Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor Medications:

Acarbose is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping to control your blood Glucose levels and by slowing the digestion of carbohydrates from the diet, which helps to decrease the rise in blood Glucose that usually happens after meals; possible side effects include gas, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Miglitol is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by slowing the absorption of carbohydrates from your diet, so that your blood Glucose does not rise as much after a meal; possible side effects include diarrhea, gas, upset stomach and stomach pain.

Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibitor Medications:

Sitagliptin is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by helping to control blood Glucose levels and by increasing the production of insulin after meals and decreasing the amount of Glucose produced by the liver; possible side effects include headaches, sore throat and upper respiratory infections.

Saxagliptin is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; it is a type of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; the drug works by breaking down incretin hormones, an action that increases insulin production and decreases the amount of glucose that the liver produces; possible side effects include headaches, sore throat and upper respiratory infections.

Several Combination Medications are also available, which combine a mix of at least two of the above mentioned medications.

Besides Insulin, There Are Two Other Types Of Injectable Diabetes Medications:

Incretin Mimetics, including Exenatide is an injectable prescription medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; the drug works by increasing insulin production in response to meals and decreasing the amount of Glucose produced by the liver.

Amylin Analogues, including Pramlintide Acetate is an injectable prescription medication commonly prescribed to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes; the medication is not a form of insulin and is not meant to be used in place of insulin; the drug works by slowing the emptying of food from the stomach, decreasing the appetite, and reducing the amount of Glucose produced by the liver; possible side effects include nausea, headaches and vomiting.

Other Medication Prescribed In Conjunction With Diabetes Medication:

Simvastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins); the drug works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body so that the cholesterol cannot build up on the walls of the arteries and block blood flow to the heart, brain and other parts of the body; in effect it is used to reduce the amount of fatty substances such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) in the blood; it is also used to decrease the risk of Heart Attacks, Strokes and death.

Possible side effects include muscle pain, tenderness, weakness, dark red urine, decreased urination, lack of energy, loss of appetite, stomach pain, yellowing of the skin or eyes, fever or chills, flushing, blisters, rash, hives, itching, swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs, difficulty breathing or swallowing, hoarseness, joint pain and sensitivity to light.

Enalapril Maleate is a medication commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes; it is used to treat high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction; as an ACE inhibitor; the drug works by blocking the angiotensin converting enzyme, causing blood vessels to relax, which can lower blood pressure; possible side effects include coughing, low blood pressure and dizziness.

Ezetrol contains the active ingredient Ezetimibe, which is type of medicine known as a cholesterol absorption inhibitor; it is used to lower high cholesterol levels; the drug works by preventing cholesterol from being absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream; it helps to prevent cholesterol and other plant sterols that are consumed in the diet from being absorbed into the bloodstream; it also helps to prevent cholesterol released from the bile duct into the intestine from being reabsorbed into the bloodstream; the overall result is a reduction in cholesterol levels in the blood.

Possible side effects include Headache, Abdominal pain, Diarrhoea, Constipation, Excess gas in the stomach and intestines (flatulence), Nausea, Fatigue, Dizziness, Allergic skin rash, Liver disorders, Pain in the muscles or joints (myalgia or arthralgia), Muscle disorders (myopathy or rhabdomyolysis), Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), Inflammation of the gallbladder or formation of gallstones and a Decreased number of blood cells called platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia).

NB. Everybody is different; therefore, some diabetics may well be prescribed with many other forms of medication besides those that I have already mentioned; all I have tried to do is to list the more common forms of medication that are prescribed to diabetics; for details of Medication that I have not mentioned, or further information on the Medication that I have mentioned, please use Google; there are a lot of medical sites out there.

Diabetes Related Information Leaflets



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